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Home本期文章複製狗:還魂有術?(上)

【法理情】複製狗:還魂有術?(上)

 

作者:曹傑明 / 中譯:羅懿信

今年二月廿七曰,美國 CNN 電視報道:「加洲一對夫婦因不捨與他們的愛犬 Marley 惜別把牠複製了。」這看似大團圓結局的佚事,雖展示了現代複製科技的潛能,卻隱藏了背後的種種道德倫理問題。

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不少基督徒聲稱以聖經作為道德指標,給予他們的是個人甚至社會整體一個倫理指引。但如 Marley 這例子顯示,把這遠古文獻套用於現代急速轉變的世界有時是非常困難,絕不簡單。聖經對「複製狗」有什麼的教導?若將來以同樣的動機和科技來複製人又怎麼樣?解答此等問題的艱澀,引伸出若要在不同事物上立下基督徒的定位、信仰上的立場,絕非翻翻聖經、揮指一點便可立論。面對如斯問題,基督徒是否採取模稜兩可、全盤接受坊間立場、又或單憑直覺的回應來否定、或更甚不聞不問、不予置評呢?誠如我的倫理神學教授葛倫斯所言:「要以基督徒身份活在當今的世界,我們就必須參與在其中。這樣的參與包含三個層面,這三的層面可以簡述為了解 (attuning)、分析 (analyzing)、與實踐 (applying)。」

我很榮幸能在此專欄中與大家交流。儘管我的研究從撰寫博士論文至今皆集中於早期猶太教背景中的宗教倫理學,但寫此專欄的目的及期盼,卻是一位 24/7 牧養群羊、與羊同行的牧師,向他的、及祂的群羊分享領受,進入他們的世界中,傾吐心跡。在此專欄的第一篇文章,我想借用複製狗這案例來跟大家開始演示葛倫斯 (Stanley Grenz) 的「基督徒倫理參與」的三層方法。

了解 (ATTUNING)

這一步是要去搜集與議題相關的事實,包括從社會一般觀點及從基督信仰獨特觀點的尋索。以「複製狗」為例:

1. 處景 (context):失去愛犬

2. 動機 (motivation):因愛犬曾救妻子一命,夫婦盼能留牠在旁

3. 方法 (means):以五萬美元透過商業公司 ViaGen 複製

a. 生物複製科技於 1996 年成功複製出「複製羊」多莉(Dolly)

b. 2004年開始把動物複製應用於商業用途

c. 「複製狗」過程 - 在狗死之前或之後短時間內,抽取包含原狗基因的細胞,注入另一母狗的卵子細胞內

d. 人工胚胎形成後再放進母狗的子宮內,讓胚胎自然地成長至生產

e. 所誕生的複製狗彷如原狗的同卵雙胞胎,只是不同時空以別一頭狗代孕


4. 結果 (result):「複製狗」與「已殞狗」擁有相同外貌、個性、喜好,令主人開懷

5. 法律 (legality):商業與否,現行美加法律沒有禁止複製動物

6. 基督信仰 (Christian faith):最後,若我們沒有了解我們的聖經詮釋和神學傳統對某議題有什麼相關的觀點,我們不能做基督徒的倫理參與。簡略來說,這類的觀點包括:

a. 沒有經文直接談論到複製動物的議題

b. 儘管聖經沒有將動物與人類看為同等,但聖經還是肯定了動物生命的神聖價值,從獻祭用的動物到寵物再到野生動物,因為它們都是神所創造和照顧的

c. 聖經提及人類與動物應有的關係,特別是人類應該如何對待神所託付他們照顧的動物

d. 從神學上講,死亡的悲情是愛的關係的破裂。而基督徒所宣告的解決,是複活和末世宇宙更新的盼望


以上的觀察如何能組合成一起,提供更多的倫理清晰在這案例上?請待下回分解!下一期我準備演示如何進行倫理分析,然後在這分析上應用基督教的獨特觀點來引出一些結論,尤其是我們應該如何思考、感受、和採取行動。

註:作者為前任恩道神學院聖經科副教授,現為溫哥華宣道會福群堂主任牧師及西三一大學死海古巻研究所研究員。

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1 史丹利‧葛倫斯著,江淑敏譯:《基督教倫理學導論》(台北市:華神,2004),頁16。

 

 




Author: Dr. Rev. Marcus Tso / Chinese Translation: Rev. Antony Law

DrZaoOn February 27, 2020, CNN reported, "A California couple was heartbroken to say goodbye to their beloved dog, Marley. So they cloned him." This apparently happy story belies the serious ethical problems behind the promise of cloning technology.

 

Many Christians claim that the Bible serves as their moral compass and provides them, and even society, with ethical guidance. But a case like this illustrates the difficulty, if not impossibility, of applying an ancient text in a rapidly changing world. What does the Bible say about cloning pets, or should we imagine into the future, the same motivation and means applied to human beings? The difficulty of answering this question reveals that finding a Christian position on many issues is not as simple as looking up the issue in the Bible.

As challenging as it is, can Christians simply give up on such matters and uncritically accept social trends, or reject them based on a gut response, or even to disengage from the issue? As my professor in theology and ethics wrote, "To live as Christian in the contemporary situation requires that we engage with that situation. Such engagement involves a threefold activity that we might summarize with the words attuning, analyzing and applying."

I am honoured and humbled to be invited to write for this new column. Although my research interest since my PhD days remains to be an interdisciplinary approach to religious ethics in the context of early Judaism, my current ministry as a pastor leads me to write this for the kind of people I see in the pews each Sunday. With their world in mind, I want to use this first article of this new column to illustrate the method of Grenz's ethical engagement.

Attuning

This is the step of gathering relevant facts on the issues, both from a secular perspective and a specifically Christian one.

1. Context: loss of beloved family pet

2. Motivation: couple want to keep pet alive in the family because he has saved the wife's life

3. Means: cloning by a commercial company ViaGen for $50,000 US

a. Large animal cloning technology developed since 1996 with Dolly the sheep

b. Other pets commercially cloned since 2004

c. Cloning process involve taking tissue sample from the original dog before or shortly after death, from which cells with the dog's genes are inserted into another dog's egg cells

d. An embryo developed from such an artificially fused egg cell is implanted into a surrogate dog's uterus, followed by its natural gestation and birth

e. The cloned dog that is born is "basically an identical twin, just born at a later time"

4. Result: The cloned dog not only has the identical appearance to the dead one, but also the same personality, behaviour, and preferences, making everyone involved happy

5. Legality: There is no current law in Canada or the USA against animal cloning, commercial or otherwise

6. Christian faith perspectives: Finally, we cannot do ethical engagement as Christians without also attuning to what in our hermeneutical and theological traditions might be relevant to this case. Some such perspectives include, very briefly:

a. There are no biblical texts that speak directly on the issue of animal cloning

b. Although animals are not presented as equal to humans in the Bible, the Bible affirms the sacred value of animal lives as created and cared for by God, from sacrificial animals, to pets, to wildlife.

c. The Bible speaks on how humans ought to relate to animals, specifically on how humans ought to treat animals as God's creatures entrusted to their care

d. Theologically, the poignancy of death is the rupture of loving relationships. And the solution Christians proclaim is the hope of resurrection and the eschatological renewal of the cosmos.

How do these pieces above fit together to offer more ethical clarity in this case? Stay tuned for the next installment, in which I aim to demonstrate how one might perform an ethical analysis and apply specifically Christian perspectives on the analysis in order to draw some conclusions, especially in terms of how we ought to think, feel, and act.

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2 Stanley J. Grenz, The Moral Quest (Downer Gove, IL: InterVarsity, 1997), 18.

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pet_cloning Accessed Mar 4, 2020.b

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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